Science

Mysterious rise in emissions of ozone-damaging chemical

Mysterious rise in emissions of ozone-damaging chemical

That speculation is due to increased CFC-11 emissions, a big issue that could delay ozone restoration efforts and contribute to a warming planet.

CFC11 is the second-most abundant ozone-depleting gas in the atmosphere because of its long life and continuing emissions from a large reservoir of the chemical in foam building insulation and appliances manufactured before the mid-1990s.

But there a growing scientific doubts about the progress of healing in the ozone hole.

Officially, the production of CFC-11 should be near zero or nearly zero - at least, those are the countries that cooperate with the United Nations body that monitors and ensures compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Rather, the evidence "strongly suggests" a new source of emissions, the scientists wrote. But from 2012 onwards the decline in CFC-11 has been 50% slower than expected.

In 2013, plumes of air containing elevated levels of CFC-11 were detected at the Mauna Loa observatory in Hawaii. Some scientists speculate that the substance is likely being produced in East Asia.

"This is the most surprising and unexpected thing that I've observed in 27 years of making these measurements", said Steve Montzka, a research chemist at NOAA and lead author of the paper. I think this will be quite a shock to many people who, like me, thought the Montreal Protocol was working well'.

"Any production of an ozone-depleting gas that's controlled by the Montreal Protocol has to be reported to the ozone secretariat, and, currently, global production is essentially zero".

"We don't know why they might be doing that and if it is being made for some specific objective, or inadvertently as a side product of some other chemical process".




And it seems to be new production on a huge scale.

They point to the fact that since the production of these chemicals was ended over eight years ago, any industry that was involved in this work would have transitioned to other substances. "There's a reasonable chance we'll figure out what's happening here", he said.

"In the end, we concluded that it's most likely that someone may be producing the CFC-11 that's escaping to the atmosphere", said Montzka.

"I hope that somehow the global community can put pressure on South East Asian countries, maybe China, to go and look at whether they can get more information on where the emissions come from".

Plus, it isn't just CFC-11 that was found to be increasing.

"They're going to find the culprits". However, that decrease is significantly slower than it would be without the new CFC emissions.

David Doniger, director of the climate and clean energy program of the Natural Resources Defense Council, an environmental group in Washington, said the new emissions were "bad for the ozone layer and bad for climate change".

With the worldwide community agreeing further, significant phase-outs in Kigali, in 2016, the researchers say early-warning, air-monitoring systems will be an essential part of the future policing of emissions.


  • Another Markle Hospitalized: Meghan Markle's Sister Injured After a Run-In with Paparazzi

    Another Markle Hospitalized: Meghan Markle's Sister Injured After a Run-In with Paparazzi

    It was alleged he then staged photos of himself looking at images of Prince Harry and his daughter on a public computer. Meghan's estranged family certainly haven't been shy at speaking out about the USA actor ahead of the royal wedding.
    Merkel: NATO's 2 percent defense spending target not 'some fetish'

    Merkel: NATO's 2 percent defense spending target not 'some fetish'

    In an address Monday, Germany's defense minister said the government will allocate 1.5-percent of gross domestic product by 2025. Members of the military alliance agreed to move towards spending two-percent of GDP on defense by 2024.
    Egypt name 29 man squad for World Cup

    Egypt name 29 man squad for World Cup

    Tottenham Hotspurs striker, Harry Kane said he would relish another golden boot race with Liverpool's Mohammed Salah next season. Veteran goalkeeper Essam El Hadary is also in line to become the oldest ever player in the competition.
  • Sports wagering is a freedom, not just a source of state revenue

    Sports wagering is a freedom, not just a source of state revenue

    All four major US professional sports leagues, the NCAA and the federal government had urged the court to uphold the federal law. Meanwhile sports betting has become a huge business, generating at least $150 billion per year nationally.
    Ronda Rousey On Challenging For Title So Quickly, Wanting Children 'Soon'

    Ronda Rousey On Challenging For Title So Quickly, Wanting Children 'Soon'

    She felt comfortable enough to reveal that she was "soon" anticipating conceiving a baby with husband Travis Browne . The finish of the match saw Rousey take down James then applied the armbar for the quick submission.
    Lachlan Murdoch Succeeds Brother at Fox

    Lachlan Murdoch Succeeds Brother at Fox

    Sky chairman James, 45, will not be involved in running a much smaller US-only company focused on news and sport. John Nallen , now Fox's chief financial officer, will take on the expanded role of chief operating officer.
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 9: Six Important Features To Expect

    Samsung Galaxy Note 9: Six Important Features To Expect

    Samsung Galaxy A6 and A6+ are expected to feature a similar spec-sheet with differences in display size, battery and rear camera. The phone is heavily expected to be powered by Qualcomm Snapdragon 845 processor paired with 6GB RAM.
    PRIMARY: Voter turn-out normal for primary election

    PRIMARY: Voter turn-out normal for primary election

    The group said it received some reports of voters receiving incorrect ballots and having their registration unexpectedly changed. Voters are casting ballots in races for governor, Congress, state senator, state representative and city and county positions.
    Turkish Banker to Learn Fate for Busting Iran Sanctions

    Turkish Banker to Learn Fate for Busting Iran Sanctions

    He was arrested in March 2017 on a business trip to NY to promote a securities offering and has been held in prison ever since. Atilla was convicted of five counts including conspiracy to launder money and sanctions evasion.
  • Tata Steel returns to profit on one-off gain

    Tata Steel returns to profit on one-off gain

    JSW Steel Coated Products also recorded a healthy profit of Rs 275 crore in 2017-18 from a revenue of Rs 12,553 crore. The companys scrip closed at Rs 336.65, up 0.87 per cent on the BSE, against 0.44 per cent decline in the benchmark.
    Facial Recognition Still Doesn't Work Like it Does in Films

    Facial Recognition Still Doesn't Work Like it Does in Films

    This is basically what happened with the Met Police's facial recognition system, too. IT Pro has approached both the Met and South Wales Police for comment.
    Paddy Power Betfair says in discussions to buy Fanduel

    Paddy Power Betfair says in discussions to buy Fanduel

    FanDuel , which is based largely in NY as its main businesses are in America, still maintains a significant presence in Scotland. Fantasy sports websites have been able to operate because they are considered to be games of skill rather than chance.